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Athletic Training & Evidence-Based Practice

Online and print library sources for athletic trainers using evidence-based practice


talk with the athlete

Return to the athlete -- integrate that evidence with clinical expertise, athlete preferences and apply it to practice. 

The evidence, by itself, does not make the decision, but it can help support the patient care process. The practice of EBP is usually triggered by patient/athlete encounters which generate questions.  The following links may help you with these conversations.


5. EVALUATE Evaluate desired outcomes with the athlete.

Did the application of EBP help bring about your athlete's desired outcomes?

Patient Reported Outcomes

Patient reported outcome assessments/measurements are a way to evaluate whether your EPB was effective.  These PROs (sometimes called PROMs) come in various forms in order to meet the unique patient context.

Searching the Literature for PROs

Various PROs can be found within studies; therefore create specific searches in databases and search engines to find these measurement.  

For example, use MeSH terms in PubMed. Medical subject headings (MeSH) can be helpful to focus search on tests and instruments, as the MeSH use a controlled vocabulary to group similar articles together.​

  • Add a MeSH Heading to the search using AND
    • example: knee pain AND (MH "Questionnaires")
  • Use the Suggested MeSH Terms box, located at the right of search results, to discover terms. Each term is defined so you can find the one that best fits your topic. A few examples are listed below:
    • Patient outcome assessment 
    • Questionnaires
    • Psychological tests
    • Psychometrics
    • Process assessment (health care)
    • Outcome and process assessment (health care)

Use the link below start searching for PROs in PubMed.

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