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Retrieved from https://moodle2.umn.edu/file.php/10029/Readings/gurak_web.studies.pdf
Harms of Hedging in Scientific Discourse: Andrew Wakefield and the Origins of the Autism Vaccine Controversy, Technical Communication Quarterly, 2014 , vol. 23 (3) pp. 165-183
Hughes, J., & Lang, K. (2006). Transmutability: Digital Decontextualization, Manipulation, and Recontextualization as a New Source of Value in the Production and Consumption of Culture Products. Proceedings of the 39th Annual Hawaii International Conferen
Retrieved from https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/virality
Wakefield, A. J., Murch, S. H., Anthony, A., Linnell, J., Casson, D. M., Malik, M., . . . Walker-Smith, J. A. (1998). RETRACTED: Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children.
The Lancet, 351(9103), 637-641. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(97)11096-0
Retrieved from https://www.newsweek.com/2015/02/20/andrew-wakefield-father-anti-vaccine-movement-sticks-his-story-305836.html
Ardèvol-Abreu, A., & Gil de Zúñiga, H. (2017). Effects of editorial media bias perception and media trust on the use of traditional, citizen, and social media news. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 94(3), 703-724. doi:10.1177/1077699016654684
• This study explores how media bias and distrust of the media influences journalism.
Atkins, L. (2016). Skewed: A critical thinker's guide to media bias. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books.
• This book discusses the pros and cons of advocacy journalism with a focus on its polarizing effects.
Barnidge, M., Gunther, A. C., Kim, J., Hong, Y., Perryman, M., Tay, S. K., & Knisely, S. (2017). Politically motivated selective exposure and perceived media bias. Communication Research, 9365021771306. doi:10.1177/0093650217713066
• This study explores the relationship between individuals’ confirmation bias and their judgements of media bias.
Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/style/sarah-sanders-promotes-an-altered-video-of-cnn-reporter-sparking-allegations-of-visual-propaganda/2018/11/08/33210126-e375-11e8-b759-3d88a5ce9e19_story.html?noredirect=on&utm_term=.381f9a3c772a
• Highlights an example of video manipulation in recent politics, which can be seen as visual propaganda. A situation was digitally edited to appear more harsh than it actually was. Discusses how digital tactics and manipulation have been used throughout history and how ethics is involved.
Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-intersect/wp/2018/07/24/after-a-fake-interview-of-alexandria-ocasio-cortez-went-viral-its-maker-said-it-was-satire/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.da3545fd0718
• Gives an overall explanation of the situation of this fake interview and what happened.
Retrieved from https://www.abc.net.au/news/science/2018-02-11/fake...photoshop/9405776
• This resource discusses how difficult it can be to detect photoshopped photos, but it does give information on what experts look for when determining if a photo has been altered.
Retrieved from http://ezproxy.mnsu.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.mnsu.edu/docview/2002481251?accountid=12259
• Mentions technology that allows users to digitally superimpose a person’s face onto someone else’s body and how it can potentially impact mainstream, legitimate news sources. It discusses attitudes about the future of mainstream media and the potential of abuse by sharing misinformation based on manipulated digital media.
Retrieved from https://www.newstatesman.com/science-tech/technology/2018/02/how-identify-if-online-video-fake
• Gives some insight on what to do when approached with a video and suggests common sense to be a big motivating factor to determine whether a video is real or manipulated.
Retrieved from https://botometer.iuni.iu.edu/#!/
• This site provides a tool that checks the activity of a Twitter account and assigns a score based on likelihood of being a bot. Twitter log-in required.