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Beyond Fake News

Identifying Problems within Evolving Information Technologies Online


Amplifying Content
The action of enlarging upon or adding detail to a story or statement etc., as for rhetorical purposes. (, 2018)

“Bias is disproportionate weight in favor of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair” (Wikipedia, 2018).

Software that performs an automated task on the Internet that would normally be mundane, time consuming, or impossible to perform (Techopedia).

Clickbait is a word first used in 1999 for anything designed to get readers to click on a hyperlink or headline. Usually, the content of the link is not valuable, so “bait” in the form of sensational or exciting wording or challenges to the reader are used. (Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary)

Confirmation Bias
Wikipedia (2018) describes confirmation bias as “the tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall information in a way that confirms one's preexisting beliefs or hypotheses.”

The dateline of an article is the text under the headline that gives information about where the story originated. It might give a location, the author’s name, and the date.

To decontextualize, according to the English Oxford Living Dictionaries, means to “consider (something) in isolation from its context.”

A standard practice in scientific communication of using qualifiers and modifiers to signal that the content is a claim/personal theory and not necessarily a fact. More information on slide 5 of “Scholarly Research & Misinformation: The case of the AJ Wakefield article”.

Internet Scam
Dishonest, online schemes that seek to take advantage of unsuspecting people to gain a benefit (such as money, or access to personal details). (Wikipedia, 2018)

Media Bias
According to Wikipedia (2018), “Media bias is the bias or perceived bias of journalists and news producers within the mass media in the selection of events and stories that are reported and how they are covered.”

Refers to the act of people receiving information (Gurak, p. 30).

Reverse Image Search
A content-based image retrieval (CBIR) query that involves providing the CBIR system with a copy of the image. The technique searches for the actual image, closely related images, and modified versions of the image. Google is the most widely used platform or search engine used to run the query, but there are others. (Wikipedia, 2018)

Scientific Misconduct
This can include (but is not limited to) undisclosed conflicts of interest, plagiarism, unethical study design, data manipulation, or data falsification. It is important to note that an honest human error or a difference in opinion does not qualify as scientific misconduct.

A type of bot that controls a social media account and spreads by convincing users that the socialbot is a real person (Techopedia). Socialbots are common on Twitter because it is easier to appear human than on other platforms, due to Twitter's short message design. A socialbot needs to trick a real user in order to spread viral messages.

Refers to how quickly we write and move information to reach where it needs to go (Gurak, p. 30).

The Peer Review Process
The process by which scholarly journal articles are recommended for publication. More information on slide 11 of “Scholarly Research & Misinformation: The case of the AJ Wakefield article”.

Video editing
The process of manipulating and rearranging video shots to create a new work.” (

“The tendency of an image, video, or piece of information to be circulated rapidly and widely from one Internet user to another; the quality or fact of being viral” (Virality. 2018. Oxford English Dictionary).


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