||Academics, professors, students.
||Educated audiences, practitioners.
||Scholars, experts, and specialists; credentials are listed.
||Credentialed journalists; professionals and industry experts; credentials are usually listed.
||Professional writers: journalists, staff, freelance writers; not necessarily experts in the field; authors and/or credentials not always listed.
||Academic presses and professional organizations.
||Nationally and internationally recognized organizations.
||Varies. Ranges from individuals to politically-minded groups to hate groups.
||Report on scholarship and research.
||Share news and trends with industry professionals.
||Information and/or entertainment.
||Cater to superstitions; elicit emotions and strong feelings for or against a particular topic.
||Factual, technical, and scholarly language.
||Formal, technical language. Often uses industry jargon.
||Relatively simple language.
||Sensational terms. Propaganda. Often uses inflammatory or derogatory language.
||Usually plain. May have tables, graphs, charts, and formulas. If photographs are present, they are directly associated with the topic.
||Tables, charts, graphs, and images related to the article. More graphic design elements than scholarly publications.
||Eye-catching and colorful.
||Eye-catching and colorful; sometimes newspaper-like. Often only available online.
||Limited to advertisements for books and journals.
||Most often limited to advertisements for items directly related to the publication or trade; some paid advertisements.
||Paid advertisements, often making their own sensationalist claims. Clickbait.
||Reviewed by scholars. All data and interpretations of data are checked.
||Reviewed by professional editors employed by the publication. Facts are checked.
||Reviewed by professional editors employed by the publication. Facts might be checked.
||No apparent or consistent review process.
||Always contains a bibliography, works cited, or references.
||Often contains in-text citations. May contain references list.
||Rarely identifies sources.
||Rarely identifies sources. If sources are listed, they may not actually be reliable sources of information.
||Academy of Management Review; Journal of Popular Culture; ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
||The Atlantic Monthly; Economist; AdWeek; Government reports and data-sets.
||Time; Women's Health; Pride; Life Magazine
||Federalist Tribune; Occupy Democrats; National Enquirer